Volume 13 Issue 4
Aug.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jongan Choi, Sangkyu Lee, HaeYoun Choi. The Influence of Knowledge, Trust, and Perceived Risk on Firefighters’ Preparedness and Willingness to Respond to Nuclear Emergencies: The Case of South Korea[J]. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2022, 13(4): 536-548. doi: 10.1007/s13753-022-00426-1
Citation: Jongan Choi, Sangkyu Lee, HaeYoun Choi. The Influence of Knowledge, Trust, and Perceived Risk on Firefighters’ Preparedness and Willingness to Respond to Nuclear Emergencies: The Case of South Korea[J]. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2022, 13(4): 536-548. doi: 10.1007/s13753-022-00426-1

The Influence of Knowledge, Trust, and Perceived Risk on Firefighters’ Preparedness and Willingness to Respond to Nuclear Emergencies: The Case of South Korea

doi: 10.1007/s13753-022-00426-1
Funds:

This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Foundation of Nuclear Safety (KOFONS) using the financial resources granted by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) of the Republic of Korea (No. 1605002) and a 2019 Research Grant from Kangwon National University.

  • Available Online: 2022-09-09
  • At the site of nuclear accidents, firefighters situated near nuclear power plants (NPPs) assume responsibility for suppressing fires and rescuing workers from leaked radiation. Their timely responses to nuclear emergencies can prevent or minimize the catastrophic impacts of these accidents. Despite their important role in nuclear emergency management, little is known about the factors that influence firefighters’ nuclear emergency responses. We recruited 179 Korean firefighters (96% male) situated near NPPs. We examined whether and how knowledge regarding nuclear accidents and trust in the authorities operating nuclear power plants were related to firefighters’ risk perceptions of nuclear accidents to predict their preparedness and willingness to respond to nuclear emergencies. Our results indicate that trust moderated the effect of knowledge on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents, and that the perceived risk mediated the relationship between knowledge and firefighters’ preparedness and willingness to respond to nuclear emergencies. The results revealed a pattern of moderated mediation, in which perceived risk mediated the indirect effect of knowledge on preparedness and willingness when the firefighters’ trust was low, but not when it was high.
  • loading
  • Acock, A.C. 2014. A gentle introduction to Stata, 4th edn. College Station, TX:Stata Press.
    Aiken, L.S., and S.G. West. 1991. Multiple regression:Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
    Al-Hunaishi, W., V.C. Hoe, and K. Chinna. 2019. Factors associated with healthcare workers willingness to participate in disasters:A cross-sectional study in Sana'a. Yemen. BMJ Open 9(10):Article e030547.
    Alba, J.W., and J.W. Hutchinson. 2000. Knowledge calibration:What consumers know and what they think they know. Journal of Consumer Research 27(2):123-156.
    Bakker, A.B., and E. Demerouti. 2007. The job demands-resources model:State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology 22(3):309-328.
    Balicer, R.D., C.L. Catlett, D.J. Barnett, C.B. Thompson, E.B. Hsu, M.J. Morton, N.L. Semon, and C.M. Watson et al. 2011. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to respond to a radiological event. PLoS One 6(10):Article e25327.
    Balicer, R.D., S.B. Omer, D.J. Barnett, and G.S.J. Everly. 2006. Local public health workers' perceptions toward responding to an influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health 6(1):Article 99.
    Barke, R.P., and H.C. Jenkins-Smith. 1993. Politics and scientific expertise:Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy. Risk Analysis 13(4):425-439.
    Barnett, D.J., R.D. Balicer, C.B. Thompson, J.D. Storey, S.B. Omer, N.L. Semon, S. Bayer, and L.V. Cheek et al. 2009. Assessment of local public health workers' willingness to respond to pandemic influenza through application of the extended parallel process model. PLoS One 4(7):Article e6365.
    Barnett, D.J., C.L. Parker, D.W. Blodgett, R.K. Wierzba, and J.M. Links. 2006. Understanding radiologic and nuclear terrorism as public health threats:Preparedness and response perspectives. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 47(10):1653-1661.
    Biel, A., and U. Dahlstrand. 1995. Risk perception and the location of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 36(1):25-36.
    Browne, M.W., and R. Cudeck. 1992. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research 21(2):230-258.
    Choi, J.E., and Y.G. Kim. 2011. The relationships of consumers' objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, risk perception and purchase intention of organic food:A mediating effect of risk perception towards food safety. Culinary Science and Hospitality Research 17(4):153-168.
    Choi, H., S. Lee, M. Kim, and J. Choi. 2018. Risk perception of fire fighters responsible for nuclear power plants:A concept mapping approach. Fire Science and Engineering 32(6):141-149.
    Colquitt, J.A., J.A. LePine, C.P. Zapata, and R.E. Wild. 2011. Trust in typical and high-reliability contexts:Building and reacting to trust among firefighters. Academy of Management Journal 54(5):999-1015.
    Dallas, C.E., K.R. Klein, T. Lehman, T. Kodama, C.A. Harris, and R.E. Swienton. 2017. Readiness for radiological and nuclear events among emergency medical personnel. Frontiers in Public Health 5:Article 202.
    Dimaggio, C., D. Markenson, G. Loo, and I. Redlener. 2005. The willingness of US emergency medical technicians to respond to terrorist incidents. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism:Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 3(4):331-337.
    Dunlap, R.E., M.E. Kraft, and E.A. Rosa, eds. 1993. In Public reactions to nuclear waste:Citizens' views of repository siting. Durham, NC:Duke University Press.
    Earle, T.C., and G.T. Cvetkovich. 1995. Social trust:Toward a cosmopolitan society. Westport, CT:Praeger.
    Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, and B. Combs. 1978. How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences 9(2):127-152.
    Flynn, J., P. Slovic, and C.K. Mertz. 1994. Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Analysis 14(6):1101-1108.
    Ford, J.K., and A.M. Schmidt. 2000. Emergency response training:Strategies for enhancing real-world performance. Journal of Hazardous Materials 75(2-3):195-215.
    Fornell, C., and D.F. Larcker. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research 18(1):39-50.
    Funabashi, Y., and K. Kitazawa. 2012. Fukushima in review:A complex disaster, a disastrous response. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 68(2):9-21.
    Goetsch, D.L. 2005. Occupational safety and health for technologists, engineers, and managers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
    Grasmück, D., and R.W. Scholz. 2005. Risk perception of heavy metal soil contamination by high-exposed and low-exposed inhabitants:The role of knowledge and emotional concerns. Risk Analysis 25(3):611-622.
    Hahm, S., D. Knuth, D. Kehl, and S. Schmidt. 2016. The impact of different natures of experience on risk perception regarding fire-related incidents:A comparison of firefighters and emergency survivors using cross-national data. Safety Science 82:274-282.
    Hayes, A.F. 2009. Beyond Baron and Kenny:Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs 76(4):408-420.
    Hayes, A.F. 2013. An Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis:A regression-based approach. New York:Guilford Press.
    Hayes, A.F. 2015. An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research 50(1):1-22.
    Holgate, A., and D. Clancy. 2009. Portal experiences:The impact of fire fighters' experiences of threat on risk perception and attitudes to personal safety. Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24(3):15-20.
    Hu, L.T., and P.M. Bentler. 1999. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis:Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling:A Multidisciplinary Journal 6(1):1-55.
    Huang, L., R. He, Q. Yang, J. Chen, Y. Zhou, J.K. Hammitt, X. Lu, J. Bi, and Y. Liu. 2018. The changing risk perception towards nuclear power in China after the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. Energy Policy 120:294-301.
    Huang, L., Y. Zhou, Y. Han, J.K. Hammitt, J. Bi, and Y. Liu. 2013. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(49):19742-19747.
    Hunter, D.R. 2002. Development of an aviation safety locus of control scale. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 73(12):1184-1188.
    IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 2014. What is a radiological emergency? http://www-ns.iaea.org/tech-areas/emergency/iec/frg/what-is-a-rad-emergency.asp.2012. Accessed 6 Aug 2020.
    IBM Corp. 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 24.0). Armonk, NY:IBM Corp.
    Jaccard, J., T. Dodge, and V. Guilamo-Ramos. 2005. Metacognition, risk behavior, and risk outcomes:The role of perceived intelligence and perceived knowledge. Health Psychology 24(2):161-170.
    Kashiwazaki, Y., Y. Takebayashi, and M. Murakami. 2022. The relationship between geographical region and perceptions of radiation risk after the Fukushima accident:The mediational role of knowledge. Radioprotection 57(1):17-25.
    Katsuya, T. 2001. Public response to the Tokai nuclear accident. Risk Analysis 21(6):1039-1046.
    Kelly, C. 1995. A framework for improving operational effectiveness and cost efficiency in emergency planning and response. Disaster Prevention and Management 4(3):25-31.
    Kivimäki, M., and R. Kalimo. 1993. Risk perception among nuclear power plant personnel:A survey. Risk Analysis 13(4):421-424.
    Klassen, D., R.K. Homstra, and E.E. Anderson. 1976. Influence of social desirability on symptom and mood reporting in a community survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43(4):448-452.
    Kock, N. 2015. Common method bias in PLS-SEM:A full collinearity assessment approach. International Journal of e-Collaboration 11(4):1-10.
    Kock, N., and G. Lynn. 2012. Lateral collinearity and misleading results in variance-based SEM:An illustration and recommendations. Journal of the Association for Information Systems 13(7):546-580.
    LePine, J.A. 2005. Adaptation of teams in response to unforeseen change:Effects of goal difficulty and team composition in terms of cognitive ability and goal orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology 90(6):1153-1167.
    Loewenstein, G.F., E.U. Weber, C.K. Hsee, and E.S. Welch. 2001. Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin 127(2):267-286.
    Luhmann, N. 1989. Trust:A mechanism for the reduction of social complexity (Vertrauen:Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität). Stuttgart, Germany:Enke (in German).
    Malik, O.F., A.C. Schat, M.M. Raziq, A. Shahzad, and M. Khan. 2018. Relationships between perceived risk of terrorism, fear, and avoidance behaviors among Pakistani university students:A multigroup study. Personality and Individual Differences 124(1):39-44.
    Melo, A.R., R.M. Silva, J.M. Palma-Oliveira, and D.R. Martins. 2020. Ionising radiation risk perception through mental models:Towards radiological emergency preparedness. Journal of Radiological Protection 40(4):1179-1195.
    Moqbel, M., and N. Kock. 2018. Unveiling the dark side of social networking sites:Personal and work-related consequences of social networking site addiction. Information & Management 55(1):109-119.
    Nahrgang, J.D., F.P. Morgeson, and D.A. Hofmann. 2011. Safety at work:A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology 96(1):71-94.
    Ogedegbe, C., T. Nyirenda, G. DelMoro, E. Yamin, and J. Feldman. 2012. Health care workers and disaster preparedness:Barriers to and facilitators of willingness to respond. International Journal of Emergency Medicine 5(1):Article 29.
    Park, C.H., and S.Y. Kim. 2015. The role of knowledge in acceptance of nuclear power:A focus on objective and subjective knowledge. Korean Journal of Public Administration 53(3):117-150.
    Pearson, C.M., and J.A. Clair. 1998. Reframing crisis management. Academy of Management Review 23(1):59-76.
    Phillips, D.L., and K.J. Clancy. 1970. Response biases in field studies of mental illness. American Sociological Review 35(3):503-515.
    Phillips, D.L., and K.J. Clancy. 1972. Some effects of "social desirability" in survey studies. American Journal of Sociology 77(5):921-940.
    Pijawka, K.D., and A.H. Mushkatel. 1991. Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository:The importance of trust. Review of Policy Research 10(4):180-194.
    Podsakoff, P.M., S.B. MacKenzie, J.Y. Lee, and N.P. Podsakoff. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research:A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88(5):879-903.
    Podsakoff, P.M., S.B. MacKenzie, and N.P. Podsakoff. 2012. Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology 63:539-569.
    Qureshi, K., R.R. Gershon, M.F. Sherman, T. Straub, E. Gebbie, M. McCollum, M.J. Erwin, and S.S. Morse. 2005. Health care workers' ability and willingness to report to duty during catastrophic disasters. Journal of Urban Health 82(3):378-388.
    Radecki, C.M., and J. Jaccard. 1995. Perceptions of knowledge, actual knowledge, and information search behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 31(2):107-138.
    Rao, L.L., Y. Xu, S. Li, Y. Li, and R. Zheng. 2017. Effect of perceived risk on nuclear power plant operators' safety behavior and errors. Journal of Risk Research 20(1):76-84.
    Rosseel, Y. 2012. Lavaan:An R package for structural equation modeling and more Version 0.5-12 (BETA). Journal of Statistical Software 48(2):1-36.
    Ryu, Y., S. Kim, and S. Kim. 2018. Does trust matter? Analyzing the impact of trust on the perceived risk and acceptance of nuclear power energy. Sustainability 10(3):Article 758.
    Sawilowsky, S.S. 2009. New effect size rules of thumb. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods 8(2):597-599.
    Schumacker, R.E., and R.G. Lomax. 2004. A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling, 2nd edn. Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Seidl, R., C. Drögemüller, P. Krütli, and C. Walther. 2022. The role of trust and risk perception in current German nuclear waste management. Risk Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13889.
    Sharma, S., S. Mukherjee, A. Kumar, and W.R. Dillon. 2005. A simulation study to investigate the use of cutoff values for assessing model fit in covariance structure models. Journal of Business Research 58(7):935-943.
    Sheikh, S., L.C. McCormick, J. Pevear, S. Adoff, F.G. Walter, and Z.N. Kazzi. 2012. Radiological preparedness-awareness and attitudes:A cross-sectional survey of emergency medicine residents and physicians at three academic institutions in the United States. Clinical Toxicology 50(1):34-38.
    Sheppard, B. 2011. Mitigating terror and avoidance behavior through the risk perception matrix to augment resilience. Journal of Homeland Security Emergency Management 8(1):1-21.
    Siegrist, M. 1999. A causal model explaining the perception and acceptance of gene technology. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(10):2093-2106.
    Siegrist, M. 2000. The influence of trust and perceptions of risks and benefits on the acceptance of gene technology. Risk Analysis 20(2):195-203.
    Siegrist, M. 2021. Trust and risk perception:A critical review of the literature. Risk Analysis 41(3):480-490.
    Siegrist, M., and J. Árvai. 2020. Risk perception:Reflections on 40 years of research. Risk Analysis 40(S1):2191-2206.
    Siegrist, M., and G. Cvetkovich. 2000. Perception of hazards:The role of social trust and knowledge. Risk Analysis 20(5):713-720.
    Siemsen, E., A. Roth, and P. Oliveira. 2010. Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods 13(3):456-476.
    Sjöberg, L. 2000. Factors in risk perception. Risk Analysis 20(1):1-12.
    Sjöberg, L., and B.M. Drottz-Sjöberg. 1991. Knowledge and risk perception among nuclear power plant employees. Risk Analysis 11(4):607-618.
    Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236(4799):280-285.
    Slovic, P., and E. Peters. 2006. Risk perception and affect. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15(6):322-325.
    Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1980. Facts and fears:Understanding perceived risk. In Societal risk assessment:How safe is safe enough?, ed. R. Schwing, and W. Albers, 181-216. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.
    Slovic, P., M.L. Finucane, E. Peters, and D.G. MacGregor. 2004. Risk as analysis and risk as feelings:Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis 24(2):1-12.
    Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1984. Behavioral decision theory perspectives on risk and safety. Acta Psychologica 56(1-3):183-203.
    Somer, E., A. Ruvio, E. Soref, and I. Sever. 2005. Terrorism, distress and coping:High versus low impact regions and direct versus indirect civilian exposure. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 18(3):165-182.
    Syrett, J.I., J.G. Benitez, W.H. Livingston III., and E.A. Davis. 2007. Will emergency health care providers respond to mass casualty incidents?. Prehospital Emergency Care 11(1):49-54.
    Tancogne-Dejean, M., and P. Laclémence. 2016. Fire risk perception and building evacuation by vulnerable persons:Points of view of laypersons, fire victims and experts. Fire Safety Journal 80:9-19.
    Tantitaechochart, S., N. Paoprasert, and K. Silva. 2020. Analyzing local perceptions toward the new nuclear research reactor in Thailand. Nuclear Engineering and Technology 52(12):2958-2968.
    Tierney, K.J., M.K. Lindell, and R.W. Perry. 2001. Facing the unexpected:Disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Washington, DC:Joseph Henry Press.
    Vandermoere, F. 2008. Hazard perception, risk perception, and the need for decontamination by residents exposed to soil pollution:The role of sustainability and the limits of expert knowledge. Risk Analysis 28(2):387-398.
    Veenema, T.G., B. Walden, N. Feinstein, and J.P. Williams. 2008. Factors affecting hospital-based nurses' willingness to respond to a radiation emergency. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 2(4):224-229.
    Witte, K. 1992. Putting the fear back into fear appeals:The extended parallel process model. Communications Monographs 59(4):329-349.
    Witte, K. 1994. Fear control and danger control:A test of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Communications Monographs 61(2):113-134.
    Yu, T., M. Sengul, and R.H. Lester. 2008. Misery loves company:The spread of negative impacts resulting from an organizational crisis. Academy of Management Review 33(2):452-472.
    Zewudie, A., T. Regasa, O. Kebede, L. Abebe, D. Feyissa, F. Ejata, D. Feyisa, and Y. Mamo. 2021. Healthcare professionals' willingness and preparedness to work during COVID-19 in selected hospitals of Southwest Ethiopia. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 14:391-404.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (411) PDF downloads(1) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return