Volume 12 Issue 6
Dec.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Liton Chakraborty, Jason Thistlethwaite, Andrea Minano, Daniel Henstra, Daniel Scott. Leveraging Hazard, Exposure, and Social Vulnerability Data to Assess Flood Risk to Indigenous Communities in Canada[J]. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2021, 12(6): 821-838. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00383-1
Citation: Liton Chakraborty, Jason Thistlethwaite, Andrea Minano, Daniel Henstra, Daniel Scott. Leveraging Hazard, Exposure, and Social Vulnerability Data to Assess Flood Risk to Indigenous Communities in Canada[J]. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2021, 12(6): 821-838. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00383-1

Leveraging Hazard, Exposure, and Social Vulnerability Data to Assess Flood Risk to Indigenous Communities in Canada

doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00383-1
Funds:

Social vulnerability analysis as presented in this article was conducted at the South-Western Ontario Research Data Centre (SWORDC) – a part of the Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN). The services and activities of SWORDC are made possible by the financial or in-kind support of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Statistics Canada, and the University of Waterloo. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of the CRDCN or its partners. Flood hazard data © JBA Risk Management 2018. Residential housing stock data © DMTI Spatial Inc. 2018.

  • Available Online: 2021-12-27
  • This study integrates novel data on 100-year flood hazard extents, exposure of residential properties, and place-based social vulnerability to comprehensively assess and compare flood risk between Indigenous communities living on 985 reserve lands and other Canadian communities across 3701 census subdivisions. National-scale exposure of residential properties to fluvial, pluvial, and coastal flooding was estimated at the 100-year return period. A social vulnerability index (SVI) was developed and included 49 variables from the national census that represent demographic, social, economic, cultural, and infrastructure/community indicators of vulnerability. Geographic information system-based bivariate choropleth mapping of the composite SVI scores and of flood exposure of residential properties and population was completed to assess the spatial variation of flood risk. We found that about 81% of the 985 Indigenous land reserves had some flood exposure that impacted either population or residential properties. Our analysis indicates that residential property-level flood exposure is similar between non-Indigenous and Indigenous communities, but socioeconomic vulnerability is higher on reserve lands, which confirms that the overall risk of Indigenous communities is higher. Findings suggest the need for more local verification of flood risk in Indigenous communities to address uncertainty in national scale analysis.
  • loading
  • Albano, R., L. Mancusi, and A. Abbate. 2017. Improving flood risk analysis for effectively supporting the implementation of flood risk management plans: The case study of “Serio” Valley. Environmental Science and Policy 75: 158-172.
    Anderson, I., B. Robson, M. Connolly, F. Al-Yaman, E. Bjertness, A. King, M. Tynan, and R. Madden et al. 2016. Indigenous and tribal peoples’ health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): A population study. The Lancet 388(10040): 131-157.
    Andrey, J., and B. Jones. 2008. The dynamic nature of social disadvantage: Implications for hazard exposure and vulnerability in Greater Vancouver. The Canadian Geographer 52(2): 146-168.
    Arias, P.A., J.C. Villegas, J. Machado, A.M. Serna, L.M. Vidal, C. Vieira, C.A. Cadavid, and S.C. Vieira et al. 2016. Reducing social vulnerability to environmental change: Building trust through social collaboration on environmental monitoring. Weather, Climate, and Society 8(1): 57-66.
    Armenakis, C., E.X. Du, S. Natesan, R.A. Persad, and Y. Zhang. 2017. Flood risk assessment in urban areas based on spatial analytics and social factors. Geosciences 7(4): Article 123.
    Bartlett, M.S. 1954. A note on the multiplying factors for various Chi-squared approximations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 16(2): 296-298.
    Burn, D.H., P.H. Whitfield, and M. Sharif. 2016. Identification of changes in floods and flood regimes in Canada using a peaks over threshold approach. Hydrological Processes 30(18): 3303-3314.
    Burton, C., and S.L. Cutter. 2008. Levee failures and social vulnerability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Area California. Natural Hazards Review 9(3): 136-149.
    Byers, E., M. Gidden, D. Leclere, J. Balkovic, P. Burek, K. Ebi, P. Greve, D. Grey, et al. 2018. Global exposure and vulnerability to multi-sector development and climate change hotspots. Environmental Research Letters 13(5): Article 055012.
    Cattell, R.B. 1966. The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Bahavioral Research 1(2): 245-276.
    Chakraborty, L., H. Rus, D. Henstra, J. Thistlethwaite, and D. Scott. 2020. A place-based socioeconomic status index: Measuring social vulnerability to flood hazards in the context of environmental justice. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 43: Article 101394.
    Chan, E., J. Serrano, L. Chen, D.M. Stieb, M. Jerrett, and A. Osornio-Vargas. 2015. Development of a Canadian socioeconomic status index for the study of health outcomes related to environmental pollution biostatistics and methods. BMC Public Health 15: Article 714.
    Cronbach, L.J. 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16(3): 297-334.
    Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. 2017. Indigenous peoples and communities. Gatineau, QC: Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada.
    Cutter, S.L. 1995. Race, class and environmental justice. Progress in Human Geography 19(1): 111-122.
    Cutter, S.L., B.J. Boruff, and W.L. Shirley. 2003. Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Social Science Quarterly 84(2): 242-261.
    Cutter, S.L., C.T. Emrich, D.P. Morath, and C.M. Dunning. 2013. Integrating social vulnerability into federal flood risk management planning. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6(4): 332-344.
    Debortoli, N.S., D.G. Clark, J.D. Ford, J.S. Sayles, and E.P. Diaconescu. 2019. An integrative climate change vulnerability index for Arctic aviation and marine transportation. Nature Communications 10: Article 2596.
    DMTI Spatial Inc. 2018. DMTI CanMap Route Logistics [computer file]. Markham, Ontario, Canada: DMTI Spatial Inc.
    Drakes, O., E. Tate, J. Rainey, and S. Brody. 2021. Social vulnerability and short-term disaster assistance in the United States. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 53: Article 102010.
    Fatemi, F., A. Ardalan, B. Aguirre, N. Mansouri, and I. Mohammadfam. 2017. Social vulnerability indicators in disasters: Findings from a systematic review. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 22: 219-227.
    Faulkner, D., S. Warren, and D. Burn. 2016. Design floods for all of Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal 41(3): 398-411.
    Fayazi, M., I.A. Bisson, and E. Nicholas. 2020. Barriers to climate change adaptation in indigenous communities: A case study on the mohawk community of Kanesatake, Canada. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 49: Article 101750.
    Ford, J.D. 2012. Indigenous health and climate change. American Journal of Public Health 102(7): 1260-1266.
    Ford, J.D., M. Sherman, L. Berrang-Ford, A. Llanos, C. Carcamo, S. Harper, S. Lwasa, and D. Namanya et al. 2018. Preparing for the health impacts of climate change in Indigenous communities: The role of community-based adaptation. Global Environmental Change 49: 129-139.
    Frigerio, I., S. Ventura, D. Strigaro, M. Mattavelli, M. De Amicis, S. Mugnano, and M. Boffi. 2016. A GIS-based approach to identify the spatial variability of social vulnerability to seismic hazard in Italy. Applied Geography 74(4): 12-22.
    Hajizadeh, M., M. Hu, A. Bombay, and Y. Asada. 2018. Socioeconomic inequalities in health among Indigenous peoples living off-reserve in Canada: Trends and determinants. Health Policy 122(8): 854-865.
    Hall, J. 2015. Direct rainfall flood modelling: The good, the bad and the ugly. Australian Journal of Water Resources 19(1): 74-85.
    Hegger, D.L.T., P.P.J. Driessen, and M.H.N. Bakker. 2018. Diversification of flood risk management strategies—Necessity and importance. In Flood risk management strategies and governance, ed. T. Raadgever, and D. Hegger, 25-33. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    Holmes, R.R., and K. Dinicola. 2010. 100-year flood—It’s all about chance. U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 106. Reston, VA: USGS.
    JBA Risk Management. 2019. Canada flood map and pricing data. https://www.jbarisk.com/news-blogs/canada-flood-map-and-pricing-data-2018. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    JBA Risk Management. 2020. JBA Canada 30m flood data executive briefing. https://www.jbarisk.com/media/1532/canada-30m-flood-data-executive-briefing.pdf. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Jenks, G.F. 1967. The data model concept in statistical mapping. In International yearbook of cartography, ed. E. Imhof, 186-190. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Kaiser, H.F. 1974. An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika 39(1): 31-36.
    Khalafzai, M.A.K., T.K. McGee, and B. Parlee. 2019. Flooding in the James Bay region of Northern Ontario, Canada: Learning from traditional knowledge of Kashechewan First Nation. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 36: Article 101100.
    Koks, E.E., B. Jongman, T.G. Husby, and W.J.W. Botzen. 2015. Combining hazard, exposure and social vulnerability to provide lessons for flood risk management. Environmental Science and Policy 47: 42-52.
    Kuhlicke, C., A. Scolobig, S. Tapsell, A. Steinführer, and B. de Marchi. 2011. Contextualizing social vulnerability: Findings from case studies across Europe. Natural Hazards 58(2): 789-810.
    Linnerooth-Bayer, J., and S. Hochrainer-Stigler. 2015. Financial instruments for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. Climatic Change 133: 85-100.
    Ludy, J., and G.M. Kondolf. 2012. Flood risk perception in lands “protected” by 100-year levees. Natural Hazards 61(2): 829-842.
    Martin, D.E., S. Thompson, M. Ballard, and J. Linton. 2017. Two-eyed seeing in research and its absence in policy: Little Saskatchewan First Nation elders’ experiences of the 2011 flood and forced displacement. International Indigenous Policy Journal 8(4). https://doi.org/10.18584/iipj.2017.8.4.6
    Mavhura, E., B. Manyena, and A.E. Collins. 2017. An approach for measuring social vulnerability in context: The case of flood hazards in Muzarabani district, Zimbabwe. Geoforum 86: 103-117.
    McNeeley, S.M., and H. Lazrus. 2014. The cultural theory of risk for climate change adaptation. Weather, Climate, and Society 6(4): 506-519.
    McNeill, K., A. Binns, and A. Singh. 2017. Flood history analysis and socioeconomic implications of flooding for indigenous Canadian communities. The Canadian Society for Bioengineering Paper No. CSBE17137. Presented at the Canadian Society for Bioengineering/Société Canadienne de Génie Agroalimentaire et de Bioingénierie, Annual Conference, Canad Inns Polo Park, Winnipeg, MB, 6-10 August 2017. https://library.csbe-scgab.ca/docs/meetings/2017/CSBE17137.pdf. Accessed 10 Nov 2021.
    Messer, L.C., B.A. Laraia, J.S. Kaufman, J. Eyster, C. Holzman, J. Culhane, I. Elo, J.G. Burke, and P. O’Campo. 2006. The development of a standardized neighborhood deprivation index. Journal of Urban Health 83(6): 1041-1062.
    Oulahen, G., L. Mortsch, K. Tang, and D. Harford. 2015. Unequal vulnerability to flood hazards: “Ground truthing” a social vulnerability index of five municipalities in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 105(3): 473-495.
    Oulahen, G., D. Shrubsole, and G. McBean. 2015. Determinants of residential vulnerability to flood hazards in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Natural Hazards 78(2): 939-956.
    Patrick, R. 2017. Social and cultural impacts of the 2013 bow river flood at Sikiska Nation, Alberta, Canada. Indigenous Policy Journal 28. http://www.indigenouspolicy.org/index.php/ipj/article/view/521/504. Accessed 10 Nov 2021.
    Qiang, Y. 2019. Flood exposure of critical infrastructures in the United States. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 39: Article 101240.
    Reading, C.L., and F. Wein. 2009. Health inequalities and social determinants of Aboriginal peoples’ health. https://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/docs/socialdeterminates/NCCAH-Loppie-Wien_Report.pdf. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Roder, G., G. Sofia, Z. Wu, and P. Tarolli. 2017. Assessment of social vulnerability to floods in the floodplain of northern Italy. Weather, Climate, and Society 9(4): 717-737.
    Sayers, P., E.C. Penning-Rowsell, and M. Horritt. 2018. Flood vulnerability, risk, and social disadvantage: Current and future patterns in the UK. Regional Environmental Change 18(2): 339-352.
    Statistics Canada. 2018. Census dictionary: 2016 census of population. The Daily: Component of Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-001-X. Ottawa, Canada: Statistics Canada. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/dict/98-301-x2016001-eng.pdf. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Statistics Canada. 2019a. About the data, census profile, 2016 census. The 2016 census of population. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/about-apropos/about-apropos.cfm?Lang=E. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Statistics Canada. 2019b. 2016 census of population: Population and dwelling counts release. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/98-501/98-501-x2016001-eng.cfm. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Statistics Canada. 2019c. Individuals file, 2016 census of population (public use microdata files). https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190205/dq190205d-eng.htm. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Statistics Canada. 2019d. 2016 census-Boundary files. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/geo/bound-limit/bound-limit-2016-eng.cfm. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Tapsell, S., S. Mccarthy, H. Faulkner, M. Alexander, A. Steinführer, C. Kuhlicke, S. Brown, G. Walker, et al. 2010. Social vulnerability to natural hazards. CapHaz-Net WP4 report. London: Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University. https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/106253. Accessed 16 Nov 2021.
    Tate, E., Md.A. Rahman, C.T. Emrich, and C.C. Sampson. 2021. Flood exposure and social vulnerability in the United States. Natural Hazards 106: 435-457.
    Thieken, A.H., H. Kreibich, M. Müller, and B. Merz. 2007. Coping with floods: Preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in Germany in 2002. Hydrological Sciences Journal 52(5): 1016-1037.
    Thistlethwaite, J., A. Minano, J.A. Blake, D. Henstra, and D. Scott. 2018. Application of re/insurance models to estimate increases in flood risk due to climate change. Geoenvironmental Disasters 5: Article 8.
    Thompson, S. 2015. Flooding of First Nations and environmental justice in Manitoba: Case studies of the impacts of the 2011 flood and hydro development in Manitoba. Manitoba Law Journal 38(2): 220-259.
    Thompson, S., M. Ballard, and D. Martin. 2014. Lake St. Martin First Nation community members’ experiences of induced displacement: “We’re like refugees.” Refuge 29(2): 75-86.
    UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2004. Reducing disaster risk, A challenge for development—A global report. New York: UNDP.
    Waldram, J.B. 1988. As long as the rivers run. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
    Wisner, B., P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis. 2004. At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters, 2nd edn. New York: Routledge.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (104) PDF downloads(0) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return