2021 Vol. 12, No. 3

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“How Do We Actually Do Convergence” for Disaster Resilience? Cases from Australia and the United States
Shefali Juneja Lakhina, Elaina J. Sutley, Jay Wilson
2021, 12(3): 299-311. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00340-y
In recent years there has been an increasing emphasis on achieving convergence in disaster research, policy, and programs to reduce disaster losses and enhance social well-being. However, there remain considerable gaps in understanding “how do we actually do convergence?” In this article, we present three case studies from across geographies—New South Wales in Australia, and North Carolina and Oregon in the United States; and sectors of work—community, environmental, and urban resilience, to critically examine what convergence entails and how it can enable diverse disciplines, people, and institutions to reduce vulnerability to systemic risks in the twenty-first century. We identify key successes, challenges, and barriers to convergence. We build on current discussions around the need for convergence research to be problem-focused and solutions-based, by also considering the need to approach convergence as ethic, method, and outcome. We reflect on how convergence can be approached as an ethic that motivates a higher order alignment on “why” we come together; as a method that foregrounds “how” we come together in inclusive ways; and as an outcome that highlights “what” must be done to successfully translate research findings into the policy and public domains.
What Makes Homeowners Consider Protective Actions to Reduce Disaster Risk? An Application of the Precaution Adoption Process Model and Life Course Theory
Alexia Stock, Rachel A. Davidson, Joseph E. Trainor, Rachel Slotter, Linda K. Nozick, Jamie B. Kruse
2021, 12(3): 312-325. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00350-w
We hypothesize that for disaster risk mitigation, many households, despite being aware of their risk and possible mitigation actions, never seriously consider doing anything about them. In mitigation-focused decisions, since there is no equivalent to warning messages, the decision process is likely to evolve over an extended time. We explore what activates hurricane mitigation protective action decisions through three research questions: (1) to what extent are homeowners unengaged in protective action decision making? (2) What homeowner characteristics are associated with lack of engagement? And (3) to what extent do different life events trigger engagement in the decision-making process? We use the Precaution Adoption Process Model to conceptualize engagement as distinct from decision making; the broader protective action decision-making literature to explore drivers of engagement; and Life Course Theory to examine potential transitions from unengaged to engaged. We use survey data of homeowners in North Carolina to examine these questions empirically. Findings suggest that one-third of respondents had never engaged in protective action decisions, that life experiences differ in their occurrence frequency and effect on households’ mitigation decisions, and that some events, such as renovating, reroofing, or purchasing a home may offer critical moments that could be leveraged to encourage greater engagement in mitigation decision making.
“Listening to the Sounds of the Water”: Bringing Together Local Knowledge and Biophysical Data to Understand Climate-Related Hazard Dynamics
Natasha Pauli, Mark Williams, Savuti Henningsen, Kevin Davies, Chanchhaya Chhom, Floris van Ogtrop, Sochanny Hak, Bryan Boruff, Andreas Neef
2021, 12(3): 326-340. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00336-8
Integrating local knowledge and scientific information can aid in co-developing locally relevant approaches for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Communities along the Mekong River have adapted to variability in temperature, rainfall, and flooding patterns over time. Rapid environmental change in the Mekong Basin presents a new set of challenges related to drought, altered seasonal rainfall, more frequent high-flow flood events, and water withdrawals for hydropower and irrigation. We present a multi-method approach to understand how local knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of floods, droughts, and rainfall can be integrated with scientific information along a flood-prone section of the lower Mekong River in Kratie Province, Cambodia. Participatory hazard mapping of community members’ knowledge of the movement of floodwaters through the landscape enabled interpretation of flood extent mapping using Synthetic Aperture Radar images from the Sentinel- 1A satellite. Seasonal calendars of weather patterns and livelihood activities, together with local indicators of flooding, rainfall, and drought were compared with trends in 35 years of rainfall data, and highlighted “pressure points” at the beginning and end of the rainy season where agriculture may be particularly impacted by climate change. We discuss potential applications of our findings for adaptation and hazard planning.
Disaster Tales as Communication Tool for Increasing Risk Resilience
Paola Mazzoglio, Stefano Macchia, Enrico Gallo, Julia Winter, Pierluigi Claps
2021, 12(3): 341-354. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00341-x
Agencies in charge of flood management use disaster reports (DRs) as the preferred source of information on past flooding events. A systematic survey of DRs prepared by Italian agencies suggests that DRs could be widely enhanced in view of targeting more effective communication to citizens, reinforcing the communication pillar in civil protection planning and management, and improving the resilience of the population to extreme events. Without loss of the rigor and details required for all the usual technical uses of DRs, we suggest recompiling them in the form of “disaster tales” (DTs), as tools that offer wider knowledge of the events to improve people’s preparedness and self-protection behavior. Recent major flooding events have demonstrated the communication potential that videos and pictures taken by citizens have for risk perception and disaster preparedness. By watching and listening to what has happened the communication recipient can better understand the feelings of the people experiencing an emergency. The structure of the improved reports, we suggest, will finally integrate data, graphs, and maps with interactive tools and be able to present handier multimedia views of the events. Application to three case studies of flooding in Italy illustrates how to concretely implement the suggested disaster reports to create more readily accessible disaster tales.
Chinese Built-up Land in Floodplains Moving Closer to Freshwaters
Yongqiang Fang, Shiqiang Du, Jiahong Wen, Min Zhang, Jiayi Fang, Min Liu
2021, 12(3): 355-366. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00343-9
Human proximity to water and its dynamics are important to understanding the socio-hydrological dilemma between using floodplains and avoiding flood risk. However, previous studies have not distinguished between the water proximity of built-up land in floodplains (BLF) and the water proximity of built-up land outside floodplains (BLOF). This article provides a new and spatiotemporal perspective of the BLF water proximities for understanding the changing flood risk in China. The results show that China’s BLFs had an average water proximity of 5.41 km in 2014. Most of the BLFs (62%, 25.88×103 km2) were located within 3 km of waterbodies. From 1990 to 2014, China’s BLFs increased rapidly by 81% from 23.06×103 km2 to 41.74×103 km2, of which a large portion (57%) was concentrated in water surroundings (≤3 km), shortening the distance between BLFs and waterbodies by 169 m. The BLF growth concentrated in water surroundings even in areas where BLFs have an overall increasing distance from waterbodies. Both the increases in the BLFs and their proximity to waterbodies can increase flood exposure and exacerbate flood risk. The scientific community and policymakers should pay attention not only to the volume of BLF growth, but also its spatial relationship with waterbodies.
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Comprehensive Development Planning of the Cities in Nueva Ecija in the Philippines
Arneil G. Gabriel, Patrick Neil M. Santiago, Rosemarie R. Casimiro
2021, 12(3): 367-380. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00351-9
Recent scientific consensus suggests that climate-related disasters are becoming more frequent and destructive. Consequently, increasing importance is given to disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) in global governance. The projected global warming at 1.5 8C and the climate variability that the Philippine archipelago experiences make DRR-CCA the key priorities of both the national and local government units. In this study, we assessed and measured the degree of mainstreaming of DRR-CCA in the comprehensive development plans (CDPs) of the five component cities in the province of Nueva Ecija in the Philippines. These are among the areas in Central Luzon that are susceptible to hydrometeorological and geologic hazards. We distributed survey questionnaires to 25 employees of the local government units in the five component cities in Nueva Ecija who are directly involved in planning activities. We triangulated their responses using archival data (review of written policies and plans). The main findings of the study indicate that in spite the presence of laws and policies on DRR-CCA, their implementation is only in the preliminary stages. The results also provide insights to policymakers and future researchers on the challenges and opportunities influencing the systemic mainstreaming of DRR-CCA in the province.
Establishment of the Psychometric Properties of a Disaster Resilience Measuring Tool for Healthcare Rescuers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Xiaorong Mao, Kang Chen, Xiuying Hu, Xianxiu Wen, Alice Yuen Loke
2021, 12(3): 381-393. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00342-w
The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a tool for measuring the disaster resilience of healthcare disaster rescuers. A cross-sectional study involving 936 healthcare disaster rescuers of the Sichuan Disaster Response Team was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the disaster resilience measuring tool (DRMT). Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlation analysis were adopted to analyze the data. Item analysis showed that all but three items had the critical ratio over 3, which indicates adequate discriminability for inclusion in the measuring tool. The exploratory factor analysis showed that 65.93% of the total variance was explained by four factors—self-efficacy, social support, positive growth, and altruism. The confirmatory factor analysis showed goodness of fit for the four-factor model: CMIN/DF (2.846), GFI (0.916 ≥ 0.90), CFI (0.949 ≥ 0.90), AGFI (0.891 ≥ 0.80), and RMSEA (0.063 ≤ 0.08). Criterion validity demonstrated significant associations of the DRMT and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (P < 0.01, r=0.566). Convergent validity was established by correlation with stress (P < 0.05, r=-0.095), depression (P < 0.01, r=-0.127), posttraumatic stress disorder-PCL-C (P < 0.05, r=-0.100), compassion satisfaction (P < 0.01, r=0.536), and burnout (P < 0.01, r=-0.330). The DRMT demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.84) and stability over the two-week study period (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.85), and a cut-off point of 61 was suggested. The disaster resilience measuring tool has satisfactory psychometric properties and is a valid, reliable, and valuable instrument for assessing disaster resilience in healthcare rescue workers. The scale needs to be tested further among other populations and those from other cultures.
Multiperiod Optimal Allocation of Emergency Resources in Support of Cross-Regional Disaster Sustainable Rescue
Yanyan Wang
2021, 12(3): 394-409. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00347-5
Cross-regional allocation is necessary for the rational utilization and optimal allocation of resources. It is also the key to effective and sustainable disaster relief. Existing research, however, generally centers on emergency resource allocation only within territories or regions. This article proposes a multiperiod allocation optimization model for emergency resources based on regional selfrescue and cross-regional collaborative rescue efforts. The model targets the shortest delivery time and lowest allocation costs as its efficiency goals and the maximum coverage rate of resource allocation in the disaster-affected locations as its equity goal. An objective weighting fuzzy algorithm based on two-dimensional Euclidean distance is designed to solve the proposed model. A case study based on the Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008 was conducted to validate the proposed model. The results indicate that our proposed model allows for optimal, multiperiod cross-regional resource allocation by combining interterritorial and nearby allocation principles. Cross-regional relief makes resource allocation more equitable, minimizes dissatisfaction, and prevents losses. Different decision preferences appear to significantly affect the choice of resource allocation scheme employed, which provides flexibility for decision making in different emergencies.
Constructing Damage Indices Based on Publicly Available Spatial Data: Exemplified by Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions in Indonesia
Emmanuel Skoufias, Eric Strobl, Thomas Tveit
2021, 12(3): 410-427. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00348-4
This article demonstrates the construction of earthquake and volcano damage indices using publicly available remote sensing sources and data on the physical characteristics of events. For earthquakes we use peak ground motion maps in conjunction with building type fragility curves to construct a local damage indicator. For volcanoes we employ volcanic ash data as a proxy for local damages. Both indices are then spatially aggregated by taking local economic exposure into account by assessing nightlight intensity derived from satellite images. We demonstrate the use of these indices with a case study of Indonesia, a country frequently exposed to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The results show that the indices capture the areas with the highest damage, and we provide overviews of the modeled aggregated damage for all provinces and districts in Indonesia for the time period 2004 to 2014. The indices were constructed using a combination of software programs—ArcGIS/Python, Matlab, and Stata. We also outline what potential freeware alternatives exist. Finally, for each index we highlight the assumptions and limitations that a potential practitioner needs to be aware of.
Mapping the Global-Scale Maize Drought Risk Under Climate Change Based on the GEPIC-Vulnerability-Risk Model
Yuanyuan Yin, Yuan Gao, Degen Lin, Lei Wang, Weidong Ma, Jing'ai Wang
2021, 12(3): 428-442. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00349-3
Drought is projected to become more frequent and increasingly severe under climate change in many agriculturally important areas. However, few studies have assessed and mapped the future global crop drought risk—defined as the occurrence probability and likelihood of yield losses from drought—at high resolution. With support of the GEPIC-Vulnerability-Risk model, we propose an analytical framework to quantify and map the future global-scale maize drought risk at a 0.5° resolution. In this framework, the model can be calibrated and validated using datasets from in situ observations (for example, yield statistics, losses caused by drought) and the literature. Water stress and drought risk under climate change can then be simulated. To evaluate the applicability of the framework, a global-scale assessment of maize drought risk under 1.5 ℃ warming was conducted. At 1.5 ℃ warming, the maize drought risk is projected to be regionally variable (high in the midlatitudes and low in the tropics and subtropics), with only a minor negative (-0.93%) impact on global maize yield. The results are consistent with previous studies of drought impacts on maize yield of major agricultural countries around the world. Therefore, the framework can act as a practical tool for global-scale, future-oriented crop drought risk assessment, and the results provide theoretical support for adaptive planning strategies for drought.
Correction to: Evaluation of Fire Service Command Unit Trainings
Meinald T. Thielsch, Dzenita Hadzihalilovic
2021, 12(3): 443-443. doi: 10.1007/s13753-021-00344-8