2020 Vol. 11, No. 2

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Introduction to “Five Years of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction”
Ilan Kelman
2020, 11(2): 145-146. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00271-0
Reflections on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: Five Years Since Its Adoption
Mami Mizutori
2020, 11(2): 147-151. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00261-2
The Climate Change Imperative to Transform Disaster Risk Management
Robert Glasser
2020, 11(2): 152-154. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00248-z
Five Years Later: Assessing the Implementation of the Four Priorities of the Sendai Framework for Inclusion of People with Disabilities
DeeDee Bennett
2020, 11(2): 155-166. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00267-w
Efforts to reduce disaster risk around the world should purposefully consider the needs of potentially vulnerable populations, including people with disabilities. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) is one of the few global disaster-related frameworks with a focus on people with disabilities. The objective of this article is to assess the inclusion of people with disabilities in disaster risk reduction strategies worldwide since the establishment of SFDRR as gleaned from research. Several studies were reviewed to observe how the four priorities were implemented and operationalized in various countries to reduce the risk for people with disabilities. Findings indicate that initial applications of the SFDRR have compelled purposeful actions, but there is still room for improvement regarding people with disabilities. The results conclude that slight variations on the definitions of disaster or disability may increase marginalization. Three key themes emerged: (1) the intersectionality of disability with other dimensions of vulnerability warrants focused consideration; (2) enhanced disaster preparedness requires more attention in order to empower people with disabilities; and (3) negative cultural attitudes need to shift to enable purposeful inclusion of people with disabilities. Additional studies on the global investments made are encouraged to share lessons learned regarding the integration of people with disabilities.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction at Five: Lessons from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami
Elizabeth Maly, Anawat Suppasri
2020, 11(2): 167-178. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00268-9
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) represents an inclusive approach to disaster risk reduction, linked to development and recovery. Building on previous international guidelines, the SFDRR promotes practical and measurable outcomes for reducing disaster losses, including indicators to measure progress towards seven specific global targets. Evaluated in the context of the priorities and global targets of the SFDRR, the article considers the case of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 to illustrate advances and limitations in pre-disaster tsunami hazard engineering and post-disaster recovery. With respect to the targets set out in the Sendai Framework related to risk reduction and tsunami engineering, especially Priority 1, understanding disaster risk, there have been significant advances in hazard assessment and systems for tsunami detection and warning. Although the SFDRR emphasizes actions in the recovery phase through Priority 4, enhancing disaster preparedness with an emphasis on the concept of build back better, on its own this does not function as a clear directive for guiding recovery. However, the overall people-centered and inclusive approach of the SFDRR, as well as the global targets and several sub-priorities, can be a useful way to shape good practices in recovery and evaluate recovery progress.
Implementing the Sendai Framework in Africa: Progress Against the Targets (2015-2018)
Dewald van Niekerk, Christo Coetzee, Livhuwani Nemakonde
2020, 11(2): 179-189. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00266-x
Five years after almost all African states signed the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), disasters still have a significant impact on the populations of Africa, their livelihoods, and the infrastructure on which they depend. In contrast with the period of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, African countries not only adopted the SFDRR but also internalized the various priorities by developing an additional five targets applicable to the continent. This article takes a look at the progress made in Africa against the SFDRR and its seven targets thus far. To determine the progress, a mixed methods research approach was followed. The research found that African states are making progress, but decisive action is needed to reach the 2030 targets of the SFDRR. Much better data and information management are needed, and the limitations towards reaching the SFDRR targets must translate into community-based actions geared towards resilience building.
Progress Toward Implementing the Sendai Framework, the Paris Agreement, and the Sustainable Development Goals: Policy from Aotearoa New Zealand
Wendy S. A. Saunders, Scott Kelly, Suzanne Paisley, Larissa B. Clarke
2020, 11(2): 190-205. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00269-8
In 2015, Aotearoa New Zealand became a signatory to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework), the Paris Climate Change Agreement (Paris Agreement), and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since 2017 Aotearoa New Zealand has been undergoing governance reform to realign priorities and to improve the management of natural hazards and climate change. The aim of this article is to provide a review of how Aotearoa New Zealand is taking steps to improve consistency of planning across the legislative environment, thereby implementing its commitments to the Sendai Framework, the SDGs, and the Paris Agreement. It provides an overview of the national governance arrangements, with a focus on the key legislative tools; identifies how key terms are defined nationally; and provides an overview of the governance arrangements that contribute to the country's international obligations. The discussion describes how obligations are applied, and considers two “disruptive and proactive” action examples. Four recommended actions are provided to further implement these international aspirations: (1) take into account these international agreements during the development and implementation of all legislation; (2) build awareness, capability, and capacity within central, regional, and local governments to support implementation; (3) actively evaluate the progress of implementing initiatives designed to reduce vulnerability and strengthen resilience; and (4) ensure that more weight and value are given to indigenous planning documents.
Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: Five Years into Implementation of the Sendai Framework
Natalie Wright, Lucy Fagan, Jostacio M. Lapitan, Ryoma Kayano, Jonathan Abrahams, Qudsia Huda, Virginia Murray
2020, 11(2): 206-217. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00274-x
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 recognizes health at the heart of disaster risk management (DRM) at the global policy level. Five years on, it has catalyzed the rapid development of the field of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health EDRM) by providing a mandate for building partnerships as well as enhancing scientific research. Key milestones achieved include publication of the World Health Organization's Health EDRM Framework, development of the WHO Thematic Platform for Health EDRM and the WHO Health EDRM Research Network, and further application of health information principles to DRM. Furthermore, health actors at all levels have continued to engage in the Sendai Framework processes and have had a key role in its implementation and proposed monitoring. There have been significant gains made through the partnership of health and DRM, but the relationship has not been without its challenges. Many national, regional, and global initiatives continue to operate with a lack of consistency and of linkages to respond to the Sendai Framework's call for embedding health resilience in DRM, and conversely, embedding DRM in health resilience. Overcoming this hurdle is important, and doing so will be a key marker of success of the next 10 years of partnership under the Sendai Framework.
“What is a Sociologist Doing Here?” An Unconventional People-Centered Approach to Improve Warning Implementation in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Victor Marchezini
2020, 11(2): 218-229. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00262-1
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 recommends several actions for early warning systems (EWSs). However, there is a lack of information about their means of implementation. This article used institutional ethnography to analyze the 2012-2018 implementation of a national warning system in Brazil. The challenges related to daily activities, and the interdisciplinary works in the four axes of EWSs towards multi-hazard and people-centered approaches are discussed. This national experience is then discussed in the light of the global challenges of EWSs considering two main issues: (1) experiences of implementation and barriers related to people-centered warning systems; and (2) types of national/regional warning systems and hazards/ threats that are being monitored as an important input for multi-hazard approaches. There are few multi-hazard warning systems in place and EWSs are focused on hydrometeorological hazards, mainly related to floods. The Sendai Framework needs to improve access to data and information, identify views from the frontline, consider political threats and vulnerabilities, and find ways to talk about disaster risk creation processes at a larger scale.
Sendai Five Years on: Reflections on the Role of International Law in the Creation and Reduction of Disaster Risk
Marie Aronsson-Storrier
2020, 11(2): 230-238. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00265-y
This article offers a critical examination of the position of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 within international law. It is argued that any interrogation into the relationship between international law and disaster risk reduction (DRR) must begin not with existing DRR laws and policies, but rather with an enquiry into the nature of disaster risk and the role of international law in its creation and reduction. It is demonstrated how, while areas such as international human rights law can be utilized to enforce obligations in support of DRR, other areas—in particular international investment law—actively work to undermine DRR efforts. In order for international law to be a productive tool in the reduction of disaster risk, international lawyers must engage with critical work in disaster studies and explore the role that international law has played, and can play, in creating and addressing hazards, vulnerabilities, and capacities.
Five Years Beyond Sendai—Can We Get Beyond Frameworks?
Ben Wisner
2020, 11(2): 239-249. doi: 10.1007/s13753-020-00263-0
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) and its implementation is evaluated after its first five years. A dozen questions that the author and a colleague used in their evaluation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA) are repeated. Improvements are noted in relation to possible coherence and alignment with other components of the Post-2015 Agenda, especially as regards climate change and urban disasters as well as the higher visibility of civil society and women, and also regarding the specificity of targets and monitoring of governments' successes. Nevertheless, the overall conclusion is that both the HFA and the SFDRR fail to deal with root causes of disaster. A new, radically proactive leadership role is suggested for the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction in partnership with civil society in identifying and warning all engaged in Post-2015 Agenda activities of possible creation of new risk by agenda implementation activities, especially for the poor and already-marginalized.